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The Nightmare


For the 2015 film of the same name, see The Nightmare (2015 film).

The Nightmare. Oil on canvas, 101.6 x 127 mm. Detroit Institute of Arts

The Nightmare is a 1781 oil painting by Anglo-Swiss artist Henry Fuseli. It shows a woman in deep sleep with her arms thrown below her, in a room filled with white light, and with a demonic and apelike incubus crouched on her chest.
The painting’s dream like and haunting erotic evocation of infatuation and obsession was a huge popular success. After its first exhibition, at the 1782 Royal Academy of London, critics and patrons reacted with horrified fascination and the work became widely popular, to the extent that it was parodied in political satire, and an engraved version was widely distributed. In response, Fuseli produced at least three other versions.
Interpretations vary. The canvas seems to portray simultaneously a dreaming woman and the content of her nightmare. The incubus and horse’s head refer to contemporary belief and folklore about nightmares, but have been ascribed more specific meanings by some theorists.[1] Contemporary critics were taken aback by the overt sexuality of the painting, since interpreted by some scholars as anticipating Jungian ideas about the unconscious.


1 Description
2 Exhibition
3 Interpretation
4 Legacy

4.1 Influence on literature
4.2 In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries

5 References
6 Notes
7 Further reading
8 External links

The Nightmare simultaneously offers both the image of a dream—by indicating the effect of the nightmare on the woman—and a dream image—in symbolically portraying the sleeping vision.[2] It depicts a sleeping woman draped over the end of a bed with her head hanging down, exposing her long neck. She is surmounted by an incubus that peers out at the viewer. The sleeper seems lifeless, and, lying on her back, takes a position then believed to encourage nightmares.[3] Her brilliant coloration is set against the darker reds, yellows, and ochres of the background; Fuseli used a chiaroscuro effect to create strong contrasts between light and shade. The interior is contemporary and fashionable, and contains a small table on which rests a mirror, phial, and book. The room is hung with red velvet curtains which drape behind the bed. Emerging from a parting in the curtain is the head of a horse with bold, featureless eyes.
For contemporary viewers, The Nightmare invoked the relationship of the incubus and the horse (m

Carlos Raúl Contín


Carlos Raúl Contín

Governor of Entre Ríos Province

In office
October 12, 1963 – June 28, 1966

Preceded by
Leandro Ruiz Moreno

Succeeded by
Ricardo Favre

Provincial Deputy of Entre Ríos Province

In office
May 1, 1958 – March 29, 1962

Personal details

November 4, 1915
Nogoyá, Entre Ríos Province

August 8, 1991(1991-08-08) (aged 75)
Buenos Aires

Political party
Radical Civic Union

Nélida Biaggioni

Alma mater
National University of the Littoral


Carlos Raúl Contín (November 4, 1915 — August 8, 1991) was an Argentine politician and leader of the centrist Radical Civic Union (UCR).
Life and times[edit]
Born in Nogoyá, Contín enrolled in the National University of the Littoral and became a biochemist by profession. He married Nelida Biaggioni, a native of the city of Gálvez, Santa Fe Province, in 1946. Contín campaigned from his youth for the UCR, representing the party as alderman of his city, Nogoyá, at the age of 30 years. A leader of the UCR’s “Unionist” wing (the faction most opposed to populist leader Juan Perón), he became prominent in the Entre Rios UCR when this faction eclipsed the pro-Perón “Renewal” wing. Following Perón’s 1955 overthrow, and with a schism in the UCR during their 1956 convention, he joined the more conservative People’s Radical Civic Union (UCRP). The rival Intransigent Radical Civic Union (UCRI) won the 1958 elections with the exiled Perón’s endorsement, though Contín was elected to the Lower House of Congress for Entre Ríos Province; he was reelected in 1960, but lost his seat when President Arturo Frondizi was overthrown in 1962.
Ahead of new elections in 1963, Contín was nominated as the UCRP candidate for governor of his province in a ticket with the Mayor of Concepción del Uruguay, Teodoro Marco. The duo defeated the UCRI, securing 113,436 votes (33%), versus the latter’s 94,660 (28%).[1] The UCR returned to power in Entre Ríos after 20 years, having last governed the important province from 1914 to 1943.
His government had no majority in the provincial House of Representatives, but was able to enact significant initiatives largely due to the skill of the UCRP caucus leader, César Jaroslavsky. In this way, Contín was able to resume the stalled construction of the Hernandarias Subfluvial Tunnel that would link the city of Paraná to Santa Fe (June 1, 1964), to create the Ministry of Social Policy, the School

George Thomas (footballer, born 1857)


George Thomas

Personal information

Date of birth

Place of birth

National team



George Thomas (1857 – ?) was a Welsh international footballer. He was part of the Wales national football team, playing 2 matches. He played his first match on 14 March 1885 against England and his last match on 23 March 1885 against Scotland.[1]
See also[edit]

List of Wales international footballers (alphabetical)


^ “Wales player database 1872 to 2013”. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 

This biographical article related to Welsh association football is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


List of college athletic programs in North Dakota


The main article is College sports.

This list is in a tabular format, with columns arranged in the following order, from left to right:

Athletic team description (short school name and nickname), with a link to the school’s athletic program article if it exists. When only one nickname is listed, it is used for teams of both sexes. (Note that in recent years, many schools have chosen to use the same nickname for men’s and women’s teams even when the nickname is distinctly masculine.) When two nicknames are given, the first is used for men’s teams and the other is used for women’s teams. Different nicknames for a specific sport within a school are noted separately below the table.
Full name of school.
Location of school.
Conference of the school (if conference column is left blank, the school is either independent or the conference is unknown).

Apart from the ongoing conversions, the following notes apply:

Following the normal standard of U.S. sports media, the terms “University” and “College” are ignored in alphabetization, unless necessary to distinguish schools (such as Boston College and Boston University) or are actually used by the media in normally describing the school, such as the College of Charleston.
Schools are also alphabetized by the names they are most commonly referred to by sports media, with non-intuitive examples included in parentheses next to the school name. This means, for example, that campuses bearing the name “University of North Carolina” may variously be found at “C” (Charlotte), “N” (North Carolina, referring to the Chapel Hill campus), and “U” (the Asheville, Greensboro, Pembroke, and Wilmington campuses, all normally referred to as UNC-{campus name}).
The prefix “St.”, as in “Saint”, is alphabetized as if it were spelled out.



1.1 Division I
1.2 Division II

5 See also

Division I[edit]


North Dakota Fighting Hawks
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks
Big Sky

North Dakota State Bison
North Dakota State University
Summit / Missouri Valley Football Conference

Division II[edit]


Mary Marauders
University of Mary
Northern Sun-North

Minot State Beavers
Minot State University
Northern Sun-North



Dickinson State Blue Hawks
Dickinson State University
North Star

Jamestown Jimmies
University of Jamestown

Robert Skinner (bishop)


For persons of a similar name, see Robert Skinner.
Robert Skinner (10 February, 1591 – 14 June, 1670) was an English bishop successively of Bristol, Oxford, and Worcester.
He was born on 10 Feb. 1591, the second son of Edmund Skinner, rector of Pitsford, Northamptonshire, and Bridget, daughter of Humphrey Radcliff of Warwickshire. After attending Brixworth grammar school, he was admitted scholar of Trinity College, Oxford in 1607. He graduated B.A. in 1610, and M.A. in 1614. In 1613 he was elected fellow of his college, and until his death interested himself in its welfare. He proceeded B.D. in 1621, and became preacher of St. Gregory’s Church, near St. Paul’s Cathedral. In 1628 he succeeded his father as rector of Pitsford,[1] and shortly after was chosen by Laud to be chaplain-in-ordinary to the king. He was vicar of Launton from 1632.[2]
In 1634, Oxford University granted him a D.D. at the request of William Laud, without the formalities, a move criticized by John Prideaux.[3] He was diplomated or actually created as such on 14 August 1636.[4] In the 1630s Skinner was known for his sermons before Charles I asserting Arminian doctrines.[5] In 1636 he became bishop of Bristol and rector of Greens Norton, Northamptonshire. He retained the living of Launton, to which were soon added those of Cuddesdon, Oxfordshire, and Beckenham, Kent. In Bristol he was active in preaching against Calvinism.[6]
In 1641, he was translated to become Bishop of Oxford. He was one of the bishops who subscribed the protest of 17 Dec. 1641, declaring themselves prevented from attendance in parliament, and was consequently committed by the lords to the Tower, where he remained eighteen weeks. Released on bail he resided at Launton. In 1643 he was deprived of Greens Norton ‘for his malignity against the parliament.’ He was also sequestered from his livings of Cuddesden in 1646 and Beckenham in 1647. During the Commonwealth he secured a licence to preach, and continued in his diocese. He also conferred holy orders throughout England. It is stated by Thomas Warton, in his ‘Life of R. Bathurst’ (p. 35), that Ralph Bathurst secretly examined the candidates, and officiated at Launton as archdeacon.[7][8]
At the Restoration he became one of the king’s commissioners of the university of Oxford, and in 1663 was translated to Worcester. He died on 14 June 1670, and is buried in a chapel at the east end of the choir of Worcester Cathedral. At the head of the inscribed sto

Robert M. Thorndike


Robert M. Thorndike (born March 2, 1943) is an American psychology professor known for several definitive textbooks on research procedures and psychometrics.
He earned his B.A. in psychology from Wesleyan University in 1965 and his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1970. He has taught at Western Washington University since 1970.
He is a Fellow in the American Psychological Association, Division 5. In 1994 he was one of 52 signatories on “Mainstream Science on Intelligence,[1]” an editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal, which declared the consensus of the signing scholars on issues related to race and intelligence following the publication of the book The Bell Curve.
He’s the son of the American psychologist and scholar Robert L. Thorndike[2][3] and the grandson of the psychologist and scholar Edward Lee Thorndike.
Selected bibliography[edit]

Cross-Cultural Research Methods. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1973. pp. 351. (with R.W. Brislin and W.J. Lonner).
Correlational Procedures for Research. New York: Gardner Press, 1978. pp. 340.
Data Collection and Analysis: Basic Statistics. New York: Gardner Press, 1982. pp. 478.
A Century of ability testing. Chicago: The Riverside Publishing Company, 1990. pp. 164. (with D. Lohman).
Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (7th ed.). (2005). New York: Macmillan. pp. 608.
Thorndike, R. M. & Dinnel, D. L. (2001). Introductory statistics for psychology and education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


^ Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). Mainstream Science on Intelligence. Wall Street Journal, p A18.
^ Lee J. Cronbach, « Robert L. Thorndike (1910–1990): Obituary », American Psychologist, vol. 47(10), Oct 1992, p. 1237, APA.
^ Joan Cook, « R. L. Thorndike, Psychologist, 79; Developed Scholastic-Ability Tests » (Obituary), New York Times, 25 septembre 1990, Template:Lire en ligne

External links[edit]

Robert M. Thorndike website and bio via WWU

Authority control

WorldCat Identities
VIAF: 113710801
LCCN: n81015485
ISNI: 0000 0001 1006 062X
SUDOC: 060327693

This biography of an American psychologist is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000


Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000

Full title
To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide for community revitalization and a 2-year extension of medical saving accounts, and for other purposes.

Introduced in
106th United States Congress

Introduced on
December 14, 2000

Sponsored by
Rep. William Reynolds Archer, Jr. (R-TX)

Number of Co-Sponsors


Public Law
Incorporated into Pub.L. 106–554

Legislative history

Introduced in the House as H.R. 5662 by Rep. William Reynolds Archer, Jr. (R-TX) on December 14, 2000
Committee consideration by: United States House Committee on Ways and Means

The Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 (H.R. 5662) is a bill that was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 106th United States Congress. The Act was eventually passed as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001.[1]
The Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 is intended to improve development in economically distressed areas of the United States. The law offers “tax incentives for businesses to locate and hire residents in urban and rural areas that have not experienced recent economic expansion.”[2] Both rural and urban areas are eligible. Three primary means were used: renewal communities, empowerment zones, and community development entities.[2] The bill also created the New Markets Tax Credit Program, which has been renewed several times and is still in effect.[3]


1 Provisions of the bill
2 Congressional Research Service summary
3 Procedural history
4 History
5 See also
6 Notes/References
7 External links

Provisions of the bill[edit]
One provision of the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 was the creation of 40 “renewal communities”.[2] Renewal communities would receive special tax breaks designed to encourage economic growth by generating business investment and job opportunities. Requirements to being designated a renewal community included having a high rate of poverty and high unemployment rate (compared to rates nationwide).[2] The communities must have under 200,000 people in them, but can be any physical size.[2] Local and state governments must be involved with a community gaining this designation. They are required to participate by making their own commitments to taking action to reduce economic burdens on employers and businesses in the area, as well as taking steps to encourage economic growth.[2] If a community is successful in becoming

Park View


Park View may refer to

Park View, Iowa
Park View, West Virginia
Park View Road, an English football ground
Park View, Washington, D.C., a neighborhood
Park View Estate in Mynydd-Bach, South Wales
Park View Heights, Indiana


Park View Primary School, Singapore
Park View School, Chester-le-Street, County Durham, England
Park View School, West Green, London, England
Park View School, the former name of Rockwood Academy, Birmingham, England
Park View High School (Loudoun County, Virginia)
Park View High School (South Hill, Virginia)
Park View Education Centre, Nova Scotia, Canada
Park View School (Washington, D.C.), a NRHP listed site

See also[edit]

Parkview (disambiguation)

This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Park View.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

Lau Kar-wing


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Lau Kar-wing

Chinese name
劉家榮 (traditional)

Chinese name
刘家荣 (simplified)

Liú Jiārong (Mandarin)

Lau4 Gaa1 Wing4 (Cantonese)

1944 (age 72–73)
Jiangmen, Guangdong, China

Other name(s)
Liu Chia-yung
Bruce Lau

Actor, director, action choreographer

Years active
1964 – present

Lau Wing-kin

Lau Cham (father)

Xinhui, Guangdong, China


Hong Kong Film Awards

Best Action Choreography
1991 Once Upon a Time in China

Lau Kar Wing (simplified Chinese: 刘家荣; traditional Chinese: 劉家榮; pinyin: Liú Jiārong, Liu Jiayung; born 1944) is a Hong Kong martial arts film director, action choreographer and actor.[1]


1 Background
2 Film career
3 Personal life
4 Selected filmography

4.1 As director
4.2 As martial arts choreographer
4.3 As actor

5 References
6 External links

Born in the Xinhui District of Jiangmen in Guangdong, China, Lau Kar-wing was the fourth child of Lau Cham (劉湛), a martial arts master who studied under Lam Sai-wing, pupil of the legendary Chinese folk hero, Wong Fei-hung.
Lau began learning kung fu in his early teens. He actually began learning at his father’s school, in secret. However, when his older brother Lau Kar-Leung saw this, he began teaching Kar-wing himself.
Film career[edit]
Before becoming famous, Lau worked as an extra and choreographer on the black & white Wong Fei-hung films, which starred Kwan Tak-hing as the titular hero. Lau was given his start working under his father and brother in these films, and followed his brother to become a stuntman and assistant choreographer.
In the 1960s he became one of the Shaw Brothers Studio’s main action choreographers, working with many directors on films such as King Boxer (1972). Lau evolved to become a director in the late 1970s. By this time he was already an accomplished actor and action choreographer outside of Shaw Brothers.
In the 1970s, Lau formed a partnership with Sammo Hung and Karl Maka. The trio started their own film production company in 1978, Gar Bo Motion Picture Compa

Federation of European Biochemical Societies


The Federation of the European Biochemical Societies, frequently abbreviated FEBS is an international scientific society promoting activities in biochemistry, molecular biology and molecular biophysics in Europe. Since it was founded in 1964 it has grown to include almost 40,000 members from 36 member societies and 7 associated societies from 43 countries [1].


1 Present activities
2 Sir Hans Krebs Lecture and Medal
3 Datta Lectureship and Medal
4 Theodor Bücher Lecture and Medal
5 Journals
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Present activities[edit]
FEBS sponsors advanced courses for Ph.D.-students and postdocs, arranges conferences and awards fellowships, awards and medals. FEBS distributes surplus scientific equipment in the poorer member countries as a part of the Scientific Apparatus Recycling Scheme (SARS). In addition, FEBS gives young scientists from Eastern and Central Europe a possibility to visit and work in labs in Western Europe. FEBS collaborates with related scientific societies such as the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO), European Life Scientist Organisation (ELSO), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). FEBS is also founding member of the Initiative for Science in Europe.
Sir Hans Krebs Lecture and Medal[edit]
The Sir Hans Krebs Medal is awarded annually for outstanding achievements in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology or related sciences. It was endowed by the Lord Rank Centre for Research and named after the German-born British biochemist Hans Adolf Krebs, well known for identifying the urea and citric acid cycles. The awardee receives a silver medal and presents one of the plenary lectures at the FEBS Congress.[1]
Datta Lectureship and Medal[edit]
The Datta Lectureship award is awarded for outstanding achievements in the field of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology or related sciences. The award is endowed by capital gifts from Elsevier Science Publishers and is named after S. Prakash Datta, the first Managing Editor of FEBS Letters (1968–1985) and Treasurer of FEBS. The awardee, who should normally be from a FEBS country, receives a medal provided by Elsevier Science Publishers and presents one of the plenary lectures at the FEBS Congress.[1]
Theodor Bücher Lecture and Medal[edit]
The Theodor Bücher Lecture and Medal is awarded for outstanding achievements in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology or related sciences. It was endowed by a capital gift from Frau Ingrid Bücher to the Ge